Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring.

Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds.

While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Middle East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC.Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules.

The sport rising from illegal venues and outlawed prize fighting has become one of the largest multibillion-dollar sports today. A majority of young talent still comes from poverty-stricken areas around the world. Places like Mexico, Africa, South America, and Eastern Europe prove to be filled with young aspiring athletes who wish to become the future of boxing. Even in the U.S., places like the inner cities of New York, and Chicago have given rise to promising young talent. According to Rubin, "boxing lost its appeal with the American middle class, and most of who boxes in modern America come from the streets and are street fighters".

Boxing was Originated in Prehistoric and formalized into different styles in the early 20th century.

Kung Fu

Kung Fu is a broad term that is used to describe all martial arts of Chinese origin. Kung-Fu existing under many different names through China's history. Initially Kung Fu was called Ch'uan Fa (fist way).

The Shaolin monastery housed many fugitives from justice, and many warriors turned monk, which sets the roots of Kung Fu in the Shaolin Temple in Northern China. In fact there were five different Shaolin temples in five districts, and so five distinct styles of Shaolin Kung Fu developed.

Martial arts historians stress that Kung-Fu did not start at the Shaolin temple, but simply began to flourish under Shaolin's influence. Kung-Fu became eventually categorized into Northern and Southern styles. In the south, Cantonese people pronounce Kung Fu as gung-fu. Southern styles use low stances and kicks and strong hand techniques because they are shorter and stockier than Northern (Mandarin) people. The Northern systems are characterized by stylish and difficult patterns and acrobatic legwork, presumably because it was colder in the North so hand movement was restricted by thick robes and the mountainous terrain enforced the development of strong legs.

In modern times, Wu-Shuemerged as a mixture of circus-like acrobatics and martial arts, and in China, national competitions are held in this sport. Jet-Li is a famous exponent of Wu-Shu, popularizing the art in the West by appearing in martial arts movies.

Typical Kung Fu weapons are the broadsword and the butterfly knives.

Origin of Kung Fu: China

Muay Thai

Muay Thai existed for centuries as a fighting martial art and is well known for its devastating knee, elbow and shin kicks. Muay Thai developed in Thailand and is popular today the world over as a ring sport for competition fighting. All strikes are allowed in the ring, unlike western boxing, which prohibits all but strikes with gloved fists.

Origin of Muay Thai: Thailand

Mixed Martial Arts

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, from a variety of other combat sports and martial arts. Various mixed-style contests took place throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900. In 1980 CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States named Tough Guy Contest, later renamed Battle of the Super fighters, sanctioning ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill in 1983 which prohibited the sport. The combat sport of vale tudo that had developed in Brazil from the 1920s was brought to the United States by the Gracie family in 1993 with the founding of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC).

The first documented use of the name mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg, in 1993. The term gained popularity when the website, then one of the biggest covering the sport, hosted and reprinted the article. The question of who actually coined the name is still in debate.

Originally promoted as a competition with the intention of finding the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat situations, competitors were pitted against one another with few rules.

Later, fighters employed multiple martial arts into their style while promoters adopted additional rules aimed at increasing safety for competitors and to promote mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling.


Taekwondo (Tae-Kwon-Do, Fist-Foot-Way) is a martial art from Korea (sometimes also spelled Taekwondo). It is a blend of Shotokan Karate with other Chinese and Korean martial arts. Taekwondo places great emphasis on fast, spectacular kicking techniques with very few hand strikes. Competition rules in Taekwondo prohibit the use of throws, holding or grappling. Protective gear is usually worn to allow contact with the body.

Taekwondo tends to place more emphasis on the sport aspect of martial arts. Taekwondo is more of a long range fighting style, due to its use of more kicking than striking. Board breaking is used in belt grading in Taekwondo, to show the power of the techniques being taught (Kyokushin Kai is another martial art that also adheres to this practice).

Taekwondo (tae kwon do) Taekwondo is popular the world over and is probably the most widely practiced of the martial arts. Taekwondo is now recognized as an Olympic sport, which is sure to popularize it even more.

Origin of Taekwondo: Korea

Founder of Taekwondo: General Choi Hong Hi 1950's (Who earned a 2nd Dan in Shotokan Karate while a student in Japan)


Traditional Chinese martial arts styles can be described as Internal or External; Northern or Southern; Hard or Soft. Tai Chi Chuan is considered to be a soft southern style with an emphasis on slow soft movements. These movements are carried out while concentrating on breathing technique and balance.

Tai Chi Chuan is practiced worldwide for its health benefits and improved concentration. It is widely practiced for the reduction of stress and tension - not as a combat martial art.

Origin of Tai Chi Chuan: China

Kick Boxing

Kickboxing is not inherently a martial art, although most kickboxers originate from a martial arts background. Rules greatly vary but generally a certain number of kicks must be thrown per round or the fighter will have points deducted. Many boxers make the transition to kickboxing by training in the martial arts and learning how to kick.

Origin of Kick Boxing: America and Europe

Popularized by: Bill "Super foot" Wallace, Chuck Norris, Benny Urquidez, Jean Yves Theriault, Joe Lewis and Mike Stone

Self Defence

The old law of self-defence in the Criminal Code provided a variety of distinct self-defence provisions, each applicable to a slightly different set of circumstances. For those who work in Canadian criminal law, the old self-defence laws were universally seen to be in drastic need of simplification. The multiplicity of self-defence provisions (old sections 34 to 37 of the Criminal Code) were virtually unchanged since their enactment well over a century ago. They were drafted with the laudable aim of customizing the application of self-defence to distinct circumstances that may demonstrate somewhat different moral qualities. For instance, old section 34 provided a defence for an innocent victim who was suddenly and unlawfully attacked, whereas old section 35 provided a defence with slightly different requirements for a person who attacked another first and then subsequently used force to defend against their victim's response.

Over a century of jurisprudence and practical experience with the old provisions clearly revealed that the existence of multiple provisions and their specificity produced complexity and uncertainty that did not serve the ends of justice. Rather, juries were left confused and efforts to make the legislative text of the law understandable were confounded. Unnecessary complication meant that cases in which charges were warranted ended up being protracted and frequently appealed on grounds relating to errors in jury instructions, and possibly also that charges were laid in some cases where they should not have been, further clogging strained court systems.

The intent of the new law is to simplify the legislative text itself, in order to facilitate the application of the fundamental principles of self-defence without substantively altering those principles.

Pencak Silat

Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and began originally as a weapons style of combat. Pencak Silat has borrowed much from its nearby neighbours of India and China, blending those fighting styles into their own. The result was a style containing kicking and striking techniques mixed with a variety of weapons techniques.

Pencak Silat Amongst the thousands of Indonesian islands, there are hundreds of schools of Pencak Silat, each with their own identity. Some of these also teach the arts of magic, healing and mystic powers.

Origin of Pencak Silat: Indonesia

Pencak Silat Founded: Approximately 1,000 years ago

Popularised by Dan Inosanto who founded his own version, Maphilindo Silat, as the synthesis of Dan Inosanto's family's vast experience in the Silat Styles of the Philippines and surrounding areas


Fitness is a state of health, well-being & more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. It is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous exercise & sufficient rest.

CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman. It is a registered trademark of CrossFit, which was founded by Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai in 2000, It was Promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and also as a competitive fitness sport, CrossFit workouts incorporate elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises.

Crossfit is practiced by members of over 13,000 affiliated gyms, roughly half of which are located in the United States, and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as "WODs" or "workouts of the day").

CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program consisting mainly of a mix of aerobic exercise, calisthenics (body weight exercises), and Olympic weightlifting. CrossFit, describes its strength and conditioning program as "constantly varied functional movements executed at high intensity across broad time and modal domains," with the stated goal of improving fitness, which it defines as "work capacity across broad time and modal domains." Hour-long classes at affiliated gyms, or "boxes", typically include a warm-up, a skill development segment, the high-intensity "workout of the day" (or WOD), and a period of individual or group stretching. Some gyms also often have a strength focused movement prior to the WOD. Performance on each WOD is often scored and/or ranked to encourage competition and to track individual progress. Some affiliates offer additional classes, such as Olympic weightlifting, which are not centered around a WOD.

An international survey found that more than 27% of world total adult population attends fitness centres, and that 61% of regular exercisers are currently doing "gym-type" activities

Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations